Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Malaria – Biological Times

Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Malaria

Publication Date : 10-05-2023

Author(s) :

Warda Qamar, Muqaddas Saqib, Rafia Gulnaz.

Volume/Issue :
Volume 2
Issue 4
(05 - 2023)

Abstract :

Malaria is a protozoal infection. It mostly spreads to people through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Blood transfusions and contaminated needles may also transmit malaria. There are five plasmodium parasite species that cause malaria in humans these species include plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium ovale, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium malariae, and plasmodium knowlesi. P. falciparum, and P. vivax pose a serious threat. The most common symptoms of malaria are fever, headache, and chills. Symptoms usually start within 10 to 15 days of getting bitten by an infected mosquito. Some types of malaria can cause serious illness and even death. Infants, children under 5 years, pregnant women, and people with HIV are at high risk. Severe symptoms of malaria include extreme tiredness and fatigue, impaired consciousness, multiple convulsions, difficulty in breathing, and abnormal bleeding. The risk of malaria can be reduced by using mosquito nets while sleeping in areas where malaria is common, using mosquito repellent containing icaridin, using coils and vaporizers, wearing protective clothing, and using window screens. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the risk of disease and prevent deaths. For the treatment of malaria various antimalarial drugs are available these drugs include artemisinin-based combination therapy medicine like artemether-lumefantrine are most common medicine. Chloroquine is recommended for the infection caused by P. vivax and primaquine can be recommended to prevent the relapses of infection with P. vivax and P. ovale parasites

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